Through various forms of art, Contemporary Indigenous Artists have been addressing preconceptions of Eurocentric views of their culture, identity and the isolation of reservation life for decades. The history of Indigenous peoples, including Contemporary Indigenous Art are often left out of the conversation. Through history and popular culture, the image of Native Americans has consisted of monolithic celluloid characters and old images created by Edward S. Curtis. Beautiful, yet these photographs have unfortunately contributed into stereotypes that Indigenous people are artifacts. There are a few artists whom have taken these photos and ideas of the past into their own hands in creating art work revolving these views.
Living in two worlds is often a theme in Indigenous art and is used when confronting the preconceptions of the Eurocentric gaze. This gaze is associate with lack of knowledge on Indigenous people and their culture but only familiar with them through western films, old photos, and stereotypes. They are unaware that there are 562 federally recognized tribes. Today’s Contemporary Indigenous artists are challenging the ways conventional museums depict Indigenous peoples, culture and art. We will be taking a closer look at these artists and how they are able to bring these topics into discussion with performance and photography.
James Luna, is an internationally renowned performance and installation artists who is Puyukitchum, Ipai, and Mexican American Indian (James Luna). His art consists of aspects of Indigenous identity, isolation and misinterpretations of his culture. In his historical The Artifact Piece, he changed Contemporary Native American Art forever. The Artifact Piece performance was created in 1987, when Luna was attending the San Diego State University and at the time, his focus was in art education. The performance allowed the viewer to participate in the reality of the current state of the American Indian in a contemporary setting. Luna displayed his belongings such as; his divorce papers, music he enjoyed, photographs and himself in a display case. Luna has been such an influential artist to Contemporary Native artist.
James Luna The Artifact Piece 1987
Erica Lord Artifact: Revisited 2008
Artifacts and stereotypes play a huge roll in how the world perceives the identity of Native Americans in society. Another part of the stereotypes is in the perceptions and reality in which they are often considered a mere joke comparison to their ancestors and “all the real Indians died off”. It is often hard for non-natives to believe that Indigenous people are a current living culture. Today Contemporary artists are often said to be “manufacturing artifacts”.
Terrance Houle Urban Indian Series #3 2005
Wendy Redstar Four Seasons 2006
These artists and their work are very important and powerful. Their content and reasons behind the creation is needed in Contemporary Art. Since the time I started this research James Luna unfortunately passed away this year and I was deeply saddened by it. The contribution to of his work to Contemporary Native art has changed it forever. He has inspired a whole new generation of Native Artists. Through different forms of art especially performance, Erica Lord, Terrance Houle and Wendy Redstar have been creating art about their culture, identity and the isolation of reservation life. These Contemporary Indigenous Artists are opening the conversation to these topics. With in the Contemporary Art there is room for Indigenous art.
Erica Lord. Other Peoples Pixels. 2018. www.ericalord.com . Accessed 20 January 2018.
James Luna: Transforming the ordinary into the extraordinary. James Lune 2017. www.jamesluna.red/artwork . Accessed 2 February 2018.
Selz, Peter. The Art of Engagement, Visual Politics in California and Beyond. Pg 165
Terrance Houle. www.terrancehoule.com . Accessed 18 January 2018
Thompson, Chuck. Cowboys and Indians: Voice. www.cowboysindians.com/2018/01/wendy-red-star-and-the-indigenous-voice . Accessed 6 February 2018
Mario Munguia Jr.
Last December I visited the House-Studio Museum of Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, located in the San Angel neighborhood in Mexico City. There are three buildings on the plot, two were Rivera and Kahlo’s own studio-homes, and the third was dedicated to the designer of the whole complex Juan O’Gorman, an architect, muralist, and friend of Rivera. The largest and most prominent building is Rivera’s studio, which served as the highlight of my visit, not because of the size and design of the building itself but for the careful curation of his personal objects inhabiting the studio allowing the setting to come alive as a vibrant and imaginative environment. The objects I refer to included jars of pigments for painting, books, sketches/studies on display, unique furniture, but most importantly items from his personal collections. Rivera was an obsessive collector of Latin American Folk art, and pre-Columbian artifacts. Although one could focus on the history of Rivera’s collection as a whole I decided to focus on one particular theme. After all my interest had peaked immediately when I first walked into the studio from across the room the first thing my eyes had met were two groupings of 12-foot-tall paper-mache figures.
I had recently learned about the purpose of these figures on my trip. They are called “Judas” figures in Mexico named after the biblical Judas Iscariot. Judas of course is infamous for the betrayal of Christ, and the figures serve as effigies to be burned, beaten, and blown up specifically on the night before Easter Sunday. This tradition is European in origin but in Mexico it has taken on its own unique form through the characteristic designs and the rich history of “Cartoneria,” a term that refers to working with paper-mache figurative sculpture as a traditional Mexican craft. Judas figures vary in size and design, however you can identify them by their resemblance to Satan or devil like beings. Some may be small, life-size, or even monumental for larger celebrations. I use the term celebration for the usual festive nature of their destruction where communities gather to witness the tradition, also they are intentionally blown up by fireworks. Although throughout some instances of their history the ritual has been banned for the public predominantly because of the danger involving fireworks, but also because of the political implications associated with the figures, as in some cases Judas figures resemble unfavorable national and international political figures or personalities.
According to my sources the estimated amount of Rivera’s collection of Judas figures ranged from 140 to 180. The source of where most of them came from can be linked back to now celebrated Mexican folk artist, Carmen Caballero Sevilla. Rivera one day came across Sevilla in a market. He invited her to his studio and unofficially became her patron. Sevilla only worked for Rivera for two years before her untimely death but is now properly credited for her magnanimous contribution to Rivera’s collection. She never signed any of her work, and remained in obscurity for years, she also lacked heirs to carry on her tradition because her remaining sons had died soon after she did. Most if not all the figures in the studio-home were made by Sevilla. Both the Studio-Home Museum and The Anahuacalli Museum (designed by Diego Rivera), in the nearby area that houses the large portion of Rivera’s collections, have done their best to keep Sevilla’s memory alive by displaying her work and arranging special exhibitions in her honor.
The towering figures leaning against opposite corners of the giant studio window are all proper Judas figures. They are all unique one of a kind works exhibiting disproportionate bodies with oversized or shrunken heads, angular limbs, engorged bellies, some with symbolic wardrobe and others with painted ornate designs. They command the room with their massive presence and follow you with their eyes watching you around the studio perhaps wondering why so many visitors have invaded their space. Aside from these behemoths we find smaller figures, not Judas figures exactly, but peasants, skeletal vaqueros, and jesters situated in chairs or the placed on the furniture around the studio greeting the visitors with wide smiles, showing you the passage of time and sharing their personal stories as evident through their worn-down appearance. Anywhere you step there is no escaping their gaze, for even high above different groupings of hanging “Calacas” stare down at you.
“Calacas” is a colloquial term in Mexico for skeletal figures, they are deeply embedded in the tradition of Mexican Folk Art celebrating the cycle of life and death and paying homage to link the culture has with honoring and remembering their ancestors. These hanging figures intrigued me for the variety found in their groupings. Like the Judas figures they also have deformed bodies, anthropomorphic parts, wide open rib cages, and stubby limbs. One cannot help but contrast their features in the way they are placed with their hanging neighbors, emphasizing overall their eccentric quality. The fact they were hung so high and obviously made of frail materials reminded me of the notion of death and temporality, and how the history contained within the actual manifestations mimicked the content of the skeleton as subject. This is not to say they are extremely somber, after all these figures were meant to be celebrated and proudly displayed. A commentary against the notion of the macabre and more on the vitality in the enjoyment in life. This idea I propose is evident in a pair of bride and groom calacas placed in the bedroom of Diego Rivera. Whether this pairing was placed there by the artist or more likely the curators does not matter. I believe it was most likely a symbolic reference to Diego and Frida’s tumultuous and definitive love story. I had also read that when Kahlo had died, Rivera dressed a Judas figure up with her clothes and belongings. A sad and maybe unsettling image, but one that paints the true symbolic and compelling nature of these magnificent figures, and the artist that collected them.
by Ruby Inurriaga
In the spring of 1912, Pablo Picasso created the first collage. This work, Still Life with Chair Caning, is considered the first because it is the earliest known artwork to have taken familiar materials, such as random papers, and deliberately arrange them in a fine art context (Shields). This new direction in modern art was coined papier collé, a French phrase for “glued paper,” by Picasso and Georges Braque, an artist who worked closely with Picasso during the creation of Cubism. Collage was a groundbreaking movement because it was a drastic change from the traditional domain of painting, as the “procedures for laying out, pinning, and gluing papier collés resemble commercial design strategies more than they do the protocol of the fine arts” (Bois, Buchloh, Foster, Joselit, and Krauss, 114). Not only did the collage movement completely shift the entire vocabulary of Cubism, it has inspired art of all different styles and forms throughout the twentieth century and even today.
Picasso’s work, Still Life with Chair Caning, was created using oil and pasted oilcloth on canvas, rope, and a chair caning. The artwork depicts a still life and references objects that could be laid on a table in a café. In this piece, Picasso brought in foreign objects, like a chair caning, which could have been found in one’s seat at a coffee shop. The letters incorporated into the artwork could possibly be referencing newspapers that could have been laying on the table. This piece allowed Picasso to explore what would happen when other objects were inserted into a painting. He used pieces from the actual scene he was depicting and arranged them in a new, abstract way. Collage is an art form that accentuates process over product. A collage as a work of art, “consists of the assembly of various fragments of materials, combined in such a way that the composition has a new meaning, not inherent in any of the individual fragments” (Shields). Still Life with Chair Caning can be seen as a reinvention of the still life.
Picasso created many more collage works, one being Bowl with Fruit, Violin and Wineglass, made in 1912-1913 with charcoal, chalk, watercolor, oil paint, and cut papers. This piece also seems to depict a still life inspired by a café scene. In this artwork, separate printed pieces of fruit are placed on top of a paper cut-out shaped like a bowl. Newspaper articles have been cut up and used many times, and some even assume that Picasso was referencing the conversations that happened at the table in a café. Collage works were not driven to accomplish illusionistic representation, but instead relied on various materials and compositional logic.
Papier collé was a revolutionary movement in modern art as it seemed to attain several meanings; “the original identity of the fragment or object and all of the history it brings with it; the new meaning it gains in association with other objects or elements; and the meaning it acquires as the result of its metamorphosis into a new entity” (Shields). Due to the innovative nature of collage, it has served as source of inspiration throughout art history.
Art, Philadelphia Museum of. “Bowl with Fruit, Violin, and Wineglass.” Philadelphia Museum of Art, www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/53855.html.
Foster, Hal, et al. Art Since 1900. Thames and Hudson.
Shields, Jennifer1. "Collage and Architecture." International Journal of the Image, vol. 2, no. 3, Oct. 2012, pp. 85.
Still-Life with Chair Caning, 1912 by Pablo Picasso, www.pablopicasso.org/still-life-with-chair- caning.jsp#prettyPhoto.
Papercrete is a medium most commonly utilized in the creation of Earthships. Papercrete, in its holistic form, is an alternative construction material constituted of paper pulp, aggregate (sand), and earthen clay.
Some folks add cement to this mixture for additional tinsel strength. As an artist concerned with the environmental repercussions of my studio-practice, I will promote this report to exclude the use of cement due to its contributions in greenhouse-gas buildup.
That being said, papercrete has incredible potential to create great work without causing planetary destruction! This oatmeal-like mixture can be cast in molds to make bricks or structures, applied to surfaces, and pulled as sheets. The mix gains its strength as it dries out in the sun.
Papercrete first appeared in US patents during the 1920’s. There is archival debate about the specific date, but its been nearly a century since the beginning of its uses in the US. At that point in history, paper was expensive to build with. Today it is seen as an opportunity for effective recycling and is reinforced with rebar in some instances for load-bearing.
Little research has been quantified to represent papercrete’s structural integrity in relation to building code. That, however, did not stop it’s resurgence in the Southwest during the 1980’s. As Ian Dille wrote for the Texas Observer in 2014, “ […] various individuals in Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona independently rediscovered the process and began experimenting with papercrete.” Dille continues to summarize that, “[…] in a sense the papercreters were unified by location. they tended to live on the fringes of the grid or off it entirely. Most resided in jurisdictions with lax building codes, or no building codes at all, where they could build without restriction.”
The second generation of “papercreters” may have been geographically unified in their aversion to building codes, but were conceptually unified on a global scale with a vast historical lineage. Alex Wright, a team member of Watershed Materials, discusses parallel evidence of Ancient Egypt’s earthen construction tactics in his article Geopolymer Concrete, Egyptian Pryamids, and a New Way Forward for Sustainable Masonry. Data sediments to reveal that the massive pyramid blocks were cast in place. The durable substance was made of locally-sourced earthen materials and poured into wooden molds, where they would sit as they baked in the sun.
Wright states, “[…] the Egyptians appear to have pioneered a geoploymer concrete that lasted throughout the history of modern humanity made from abundant common earthen materials found nearly everywhere on the planet. Compare that to the concrete we make that lasts half a century and comes with a disastrous carbon footprint.” Wright extends this notion of refection as he continues to re-imagine the potential for the future of building.
By revisiting humankind’s universal heritage of composite-construction methods with naturally occurring materials, we begin to unfold the limitless potential for cleaner making. I believe that papercrete may be an ideal vehicle for environmentally-concerned investigations.
Papercrete is lightweight and strong. Which makes it easy to move, store, and ship from studio to gallery. Artists have utilized this material in conceptual conversation about the human relationships to the building upon earth. Oscar Tuazon describes this “outlaw architecture” as a “physical […] experience of balance,” in his artist bio for the Luhring Augustine gallery.
Tuazon utilizes papercrete with his “I Can’t See” series, in which the medium exists as it is contained within its wooden flask. The works feature inclusions of larger recycled paper scraps. Tuazon may be discussing the blinding clutter of consumption yet simultaneously re-invisions its potential condensing via its repurposing.
Highlighting the possible potential for the future of our artistic and environmental interrelation is critical for sustainable studio practice. In light of the earth’s suffered damages, it feels unkind to turn a blind eye in the anthropocene. So let us take notice, make changes, and adapt our modes of creation.
Let’s look to the world of paper-art and re-iamgine how it can stand to aid in that. Paper-making and book arts overflow into the realm of sculpture, but papercrete could break the levee. Dissolving boundaries between artistic disciplines and building bridges from practice to concept, papercrete holds weight in the potential for our future from our past.